In this video from ITFreeTraining, I will look at IPv6 addresses. IPv6 addresses are very different from IPv4 addresses and, while they look complicated at first, by the end of this video you will have an excellent understanding of how they work and they won’t seem as scary as they first appear.
Access the rest of the course: http://ITFreeTraining.com/ipv6
Download the PDF handout: http://ITFreeTraining.com/handouts/ipv6/addresses.pdf
Number of Addresses
0:19 – The biggest problem with IPv4 is that there are a limited number of IP Addresses. IPv6 has 2 to the power of 128 addresses while IPv4 has 2 to the power of 32 addresses. There are a lot of different ways that people have come up with to describe the difference between the number of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. In this video, I will use the following example and there are many more to choose from. If IP Addresses were grains of sand, IPv4 addresses would fill a truck. If IPv6 addresses were grains of sand, they would fill the sun. Quite a big difference. IPv4 addresses are running out, however IPv6 addresses should never run out.
Format of Addresses
With the larger address space, IPv6 also comes with a new format to display these addresses. This is completely different from the way that IPv4 addresses are formatted. The IPv6 address is 128 bits. It would not be that easy to read in binary format, so IPv6 addresses are shown in hexadecimal format grouped in fours and separated by colons. An example of such an address is shown. Notice that all the hexadecimal letters are in lower case. If you are not familiar with hexadecimal, please see our previous video that explains how to convert and use hexadecimal. At first, the address looked complicated, but once you start breaking down the addresses they get a lot less complicated. Also, once you start working with them, you will start to recognize particular addresses and what they do. To start with, let’s break down the address into the smallest part, which is 4 bits and referred to as a nibble. With some tasks in IPv6, like subnetting, the process is easier if the 4 bit boundary is kept, however this is not always possible. The next break down is into groups of four which is 16 bits. There are a number of different naming conventions and no one convention has been universally accepted for IPv6. In programming, 16 bits is referred to as a word. In this course, 16 bits or a block of four characters in an address will be referred to as a quartet. Just be mindful that other naming conventions exist and it may be a while before one is agreed upon, if at all. The IPv6 address is a little long and complicated, so let’s look at how it can be made easier to work with.
3:00 – To make the IPv6 addresses a little easier to read, first, the leading zeroes in each group of four can be removed. To demonstrate this, I will use the previous example. By looking at the address, notice that there are a number of leading zeroes. These leading zeros can be removed to give the following. You would not display the address like this, so the next step would be to remove the white space. This will give a smaller address that is easier to work with. There are, however, a lot of zeroes left in the address and it is possible to make it even smaller. Let’s have a look how.
It is possible to compress an IPv6 address by removing consecutive zeroes and replacing them with a double colon. This is the example IPv6 address from the previous slide and we have three sets of consecutive zeroes. These can actually be removed and replaced with one double colon. As you can see with the example, the zeroes have been removed and there is white space between them. Once the white space is removed, you can see the actual physical address at the bottom. You can see that this address is much easier to read and recall now that is has had all the excess zeroes removed. In some cases, however, you will have two sets of consecutive zeroes so let’s take a look at that next.
This description is too long, be sure to check out http://itfreetraining.com/ipv6/addresses for the rest!
Script: Austin Mason http://ITFreeTraining.com
Voice Talent: HP Lewis http://hplewis.com
Companion Document: Phillip Guld https://philguld.com
Video Production: Kevin Luttman http://www.KevinLuttman.com
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